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Diamond Facts

For information and facts on where and how diamonds are formed, DiamondAvenue.com is the place.




Diamond Producing Countries

World Diamond MinesSource: Kitco

Volcanoes can be found throughout the world, however, there are three geographic bands that go around the planet where volcanoes have given rise to Volcanic Pipes that contain diamonds. The two most important are the northern band which includes Russia and Canada and the southern band which includes Australia, Botswana, Namibia and South Africa. The central band includes Brazil, India, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone and Venezuela. Of all of these countries, the top five, not necessarily in rank order are, Australia, Botswana, Canada, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Russia.





Basic Diamond Information

What is a Diamond?

Name Backgound:
The name "Diamond" comes from the ancient Greek "adamas" defined as "invincible."
Diamond Hardness:
The world's hardest known natural substance (occuring in nature)
Third hardest known natural or man-made substance after 1) aggregated diamond nanorods and 2) ultrahard fullerite
Base Element:
Carbon - the diamond is one of two allotropes of carbon. The other is graphite
Physical Qualities:
Hardness, High dispersion of light
Physical Characteristics:
Makes a superior abrasive, holds a polish extremely well, retains its luster
Diamond quality is determined by the Four C's: Carat (weight), Clarity, Color, and Cut (Shape)
Historical Information:
Diamonds have been used as gemstones for at least two thousand five hunderd years
Since the nineteenth century, diamonds have become increasingly popular due to:
1) greater supply, 2) improved polishing and cutting procedures,
3) better advertising, and 4) more people with disposable income - see Diamond History
Sources:
Volcanic pipes (or conduits) from deep within the Earth where
temperatures and pressures are high permitting the formation of crystals
Deposit Locations:
Central and southern Africa - roughly half of all annual mining
Canada, Australia, India, Russia and Brazil
 
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Volcanic Pipes

Diamond Mine

Volcanic Pipes are tubes or cones in the earth’s crust formed by the high-speed eruption of molten rock (magma) from chambers in deep-lying volcanos.  Inside the cones, one will find cooled magma composed of either Kimberlite or Lamproite which are diamond-bearing rocks.  It takes one to 3 billion years for a diamond to form.  Volcanic Pipes are secondary volcanic vents and once they have been inactive for many years, they erode and allow for the exploration of diamonds.   


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